In two studies, Minnesota Citizens for the Arts (MCA) measures the impact of the arts on the state economy of Minnesota. Findings from The arts: a driving force in Minnesota's economy (2006), conducted together with the Forum of Regional Arts Councils of Minnesota (FRACM), show that in 2004, the nonprofit arts and culture industry in Minnesota generated a total of $838.5 million in local economic activity, supporting 22,095 fte jobs and generating $94.1 million in local and state government revenues. Artists count. An economic impact study of artists in Minnesota (2007), a follow-up study carried out with the Springboard for the Arts and Minnesota Crafts Council, measures individual artists' impact on state's economy. Findings of this study show that individual artists generate $205.2 million in state-wide economic activity.
A recent study by the Work Foundation (2007), Staying ahead: the economic performance of the UK's creative industries, shows that the UK has the largest creative sector in Europe, with the creative and cultural industries playing an increasingly important role in economic life. The report identifies demand, education and skills, diversity, networks, public institutions and investment, business-building capacity, intellectual property, and a level playing field as the 8 main drivers of the creative industries' performance.
Two different publications look at the (socio) economic impact of built heritage. The economic and social impacts of cathedrals in England. Final report (2004), a report by Ecotec Research and Consulting for English Heritage, assesses the economic and social impacts of English cathedrals on their local communities. The report concludes that total local spend that can be attributed to cathedrals can be estimated at around Ł150 million per year, and that cathedrals make a significant positive contribution to society and social wellbeing. A paper by Nypan (2005) analyses the use value of the cultural heritage sector from a social economic perspective. Its findings show that historic rehabilitation creates 13% higher return on investments than new construction, generates 16.5% more jobs and produces 1,243 times less waste, while the cultural heritage sector creates approximately 26.7 additional jobs for every direct one (Cultural heritage monuments and historic buildings as value generators in a post-industrial economy. With emphasis on exploring the role of the sector as economic driver).
In Brighton festival 2004. Everyone benefits...A study of the economic and cultural impact of the festival upon Brighton and Hove (2004), Sussex Arts Marketing analyses the impact of the 2004 Brighton Festival and its Fringe on the local economy of Brighton and Hove. It concludes that the overall economic impact of the 2004 festival on the local economy was Ł20.36 million.
A report by Jura Consultants (2006) assesses the wider economic contribution of Manchester's seven 'Pillar Events' to the city's economy. It concludes that the events make a significant contribution to the Manchester and North West economy, both in terms of employment and expenditure. (Economic Impact Assessment. The pillar events. Final report.)
Arts, Culture and Health
Towards transformation: exploring the impact of culture, creativity and the arts on health and wellbeing. A consultation report for the critical friends event (2007), by Kilroy et al., presents the findings of a three-year research project into the measured and perceived impact and value of art activities on health and well-being within target groups, specifically looking at older people and NHS health workers.
Arts, Culture and Regeneration
In Press impact analysis (1996, 2003, 2005). A retrospective study: UK national press coverage on Liverpool before, during and after bidding for European Capital of Culture status (2006) Garcia reports on a longitudinal study of the impacts of the title of European Capital of Culture on external representations of the city of Liverpool, as covered by UK national press. Initial findings show the overall tone of reporting on Liverpool to be balanced between positive and negative reporting, although stories generally tended to be more negative in 1996 and more positive in 2003. It concludes that the nomination for ECoC has had a direct impact on the growth of stories about Liverpool's culture and the arts, inward investment, and social inclusion.
Arts, Culture and Society
Young people and creativity (2007), a report by the Future Foundation for the National Lottery, explores young people's creative activities outside the classroom. It shows that young people in the UK are keen to be seen as creative and recognise the benefits associated with creative activity. 'Doing things with friends' was cited as the main motivator for greater involvement in creative activities, and Londoners were found to spend considerably more time on creative activities than young people elsewhere in the UK. The findings also indicate a 'creative deficit' amongst adolescent girls.
Hooper-Greenhill et al. (2007) have carried out the second evaluation of the DCMS/DCSF national-regional museum partnership programme. Their study shows that the number of participants in the programme has increased compared to the 2003-2004 evaluation and concludes that there is evidence of powerful learning outcomes for pupils. (Inspiration, identity, learning: the value of museums. An evaluation of the DCMS/DCSF National/Regional museum partnership programme in 2006/2007. Second study).
Attending heritage sites: a quantitative analysis of data from the Taking Part survey (2007), a study by CEBR for English Heritage, provides a statistical evaluation of the drivers of attendance at heritage sites, and identifies the social and economic factors that affect attendance and non-attendance of activities, and how they may interact. The findings show that accessibility and individual backgrounds are the main factors influencing attendance to heritage sites.
In Values and benefits of heritage. A research review (2007), Maeer reviews new and recent research relevant for the heritage sector. Research is grouped into four categories: valuing heritage; visits to heritage attractions; social benefits of heritage; economic benefits/regeneration, with a focus on quantitative research as well as larger-scale in-depth qualitative studies (from within the UK only).
Olsberg SPI (2007) has published Stately attraction. How film and television programmes promote tourism in the UK, a report for the UK Film Council. The report shows that British films and television programmes have a significant, positive effect on tourism, contributing to a wider branding of UK people, society and culture. Its shows which characteristics of film and television productions have the greatest tourism potential, and where tourism impact was found to be most significant.